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Fiber laser metal cutting applications huge potential in the future

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  High brightness, high power solid laser source, such as fiber lasers, showed them the potential of the metal cutting applications in the future. IPU formerly known as the Danish Product Development Institute, the Institute for Product Development, there is a research and Development of new concept with the single mode fiber laser laser cutting, has begun in DOEFLAC and ROBOCUT two projects to application, and cooperate with many other project partners.

  Initial tests show that this new way of processing has the potential to surpass the advanced optical fiber laser cutting, laser cutting and CO2 after more than two kinds of laser cutting technology of processing speed faster, better, and cheaper. Expects the two after the completion of the project, the cutting technology will increasingly mature and reach a certain level, can be in accordance with the usual commercial terms used in the manufacture of a product and sell.

  Custom beam shape

  These projects are based on a principle, namely: with the circular laser beam of single beam compared to traditional laser cutting, a new cutting technology adopted complex shape of a laser beam. Unique focusing properties using high-power single-mode fiber laser, the beam of the complex shape, and make it possible the overall detachments of laser energy, so as to create a "keyhole", used in laser welding and laser cutting applications. The rest of the energy will be allocated to melt; Before that, the main beam is used to create a proper high steam pressure distribution on the surface of the molten material. Which makes it can be partial pressure on the flow of melt incision, more than the commonly used in laser cutting of coaxial gas injection pressure. As a result, the incision is very narrow. Potential new technology, in a larger range of cutting speed does not produce flash, and in the narrow contour cutting for high speed cutting, can also produce high quality of incision.

  Cutting ways

  And by correctly custom laser beam shape (add "cover" shaped beam shape), even without using auxiliary gas cutting, molten fluid will flow along the direction of the incident laser beam incision. So a single channel remote cutting technology was developed, the technology has a definite application prospect, compared to the advanced remote laser cutting can effectively remove the melt from the incision.

  Beam shaping

  The laser cutting technology is the core of the beam shaping, can be achieved by different ways, such as: design a system with a single mode fiber laser. Through beam combination structure, rather than put all of the single-mode transmission beam into a big transmission fiber, can the transmission of the beam to the cutting head, as used in high-power multimode fiber laser configuration. Application of a single-mode fiber laser source. Using an advanced optical system with a specially designed artificial hologram (also known as diffraction optics), converts the input laser beam radiation pattern, in order to optimize a given laser cutting technology. Because the beam pattern is symmetrical, diffraction optics must be according to actual cutting direction.

  Using custom laser beam model of remote laser cutting system

  About the mechanism of laser produce steam pressure, as early as a few decades ago laser keyhole drilling and penetrate deep penetration laser welding is known, the partial pressure of the steam is penetrating drilling drive mechanism, and used to generate and maintain the keyhole welding. Keyhole through laser cutting has a history of 20 years, a group of scientists in the fraunhofer institute for laser technology research using CO2 laser to do high-speed cutting sheet metal. Keyhole using CO2 laser for laser cutting, however, is limited to a very thin sheet, this is because the key hole formed in the powerful plasma, which also appeared in the high power CO2 laser welding.

  Focusing performance of high brightness fiber laser and its wavelength, make this kind of laser keyhole on the thick plate cutting, because the fiber laser cutting speed is much faster than that of CO2 laser. Because you can more efficiently will be deleted from the center line of cutting edge, melt keyhole cutting laser cutting is more efficient than usual; To melt during the processing of the former, the material will flow in the front of the laser beam. This makes the molten layer thickness is thinner and thus ensure that from the molten surface can effectively conduct heat, melt front absorbed on the surface of the laser, and need more energy to melt material. However, in the key hole cutting, laser melt flow surrounding the causes quality problem. Run off the cutting side melt, which will worsen cutting quality, because the fiber laser cutting speed quickly, but when the cutting thickness increases, the cutting quality is not high.

  In a typical cutting, laser cutting and advanced keyhole coaxial gas auxiliary way is the only power to remove the melt; Incision must be amplified, so as to reduce pressure by slit. Here, the more pressure obtained by the laser irradiation, and are subjected to great pressure in the slit. Can completely according to the optical path, therefore, limit to design custom new method of laser beam, it can cut out more than the use of advanced laser cutting mode narrow incision.

  Experiment so far so far, the experiment using the new method shows that under the cutting rate of changes in a wide range of specific quality improvement, and has set up a proof, can almost get burr-free cutting effect. The future of the two projects is obvious. In addition, the results of the single remote laser fusion cutting (from fast company) have shown that removal of melt only by laser irradiation. However fast company solution is based on a circular laser beam, which requires by defocusing the working mechanism. It is not the ideal solution, because the requirements under the condition of the melt from the incision line out in front of the laser beam, has clearly shows that the results of the public. Another remote cutting technology via the Fraunhofer institute for laser technology (Fraunhofer IWS), is a highly focused circular single-mode laser beam on the material surface scan times, in-depth sculpture. This technique is only applicable to cutting plate; Due to the multiple scan, scan the advantage of more or less loss.

  The project, the key work is currently focused on the calculation in the design of experiment and manufacture, to prepare for the test phase, and in Denmark red fort university set up experimental facilities, including a 3 kw single mode fiber laser.
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